Hypogonadism occurs when the body's sex glands produce little or no hormones. In men, these glands (gonads) are the testes. In women, these glands are the ovaries.
The cause of hypogonadism can be primary or central. In primary hypogonadism, the ovaries or testes themselves do not function properly. Causes of primary hypogonadism include:
The most common genetic disorders that cause primary hypogonadism are Turner syndrome (in women) and Klinefelter syndrome (in men).
If you already have other autoimmune disorders you may be at higher risk of autoimmune damage to the gonads. These can include disorders that affect the liver and adrenal and thyroid glands as well as type 1 diabetes.
In central hypogonadism, the centers in the brain that control the gonads (hypothalamus and pituitary) do not function properly. Causes of central hypogonadism include:
A genetic cause of central hypogonadism is Kallmann syndrome. Many people with this condition also have a decreased sense of smell.
Girls who have hypogonadism will not begin menstruating. Hypogonadism can affect their breast development and height. If hypogonadism occurs after puberty, symptoms in women include:
In boys, hypogonadism affects muscle, beard, genital and voice development. It also leads to growth problems. In men the symptoms are:
If a pituitary or other brain tumor is present (central hypogonadism), there may be:
The most common tumors affecting the pituitary are craniopharyngioma in children and prolactinoma adenomas in adults.
You may need to have tests to check:
Other tests may include:
Sometimes imaging tests are needed, such as a sonogram of the ovaries. If pituitary disease is suspected, an MRI or CT scan of the brain may be done.
You may need to take hormone-based medicines. Estrogen and progesterone are used for girls and women. The medicines comes come in the form of a pill or skin patch. Testosterone is used for boys and men. The medicine can be given as a skin patch, skin gel, a solution applied to the armpit, a patch applied to the upper gum, or by injection.
For women who have not had their uterus removed, combination treatment with estrogen and progesterone may decrease the chance of developing endometrial cancer. Women with hypogonadism who have low sex drive may also be prescribed low-dose testosterone.
In some women, injections or pills can be used to stimulate ovulation. Injections of pituitary hormone may be used to help men produce sperm. Other people may need surgery and radiation therapy.
Many forms of hypogonadism are treatable and have a good outlook.
In women, hypogonadism may cause infertility. Menopause is a form of hypogonadism that occurs naturally and can cause hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and irritability as a woman's estrogen levels fall. The risk of osteoporosis and heart disease increase after menopause.
Some women with hypogonadism take estrogen therapy, especially those who have early menopause. But long-term used of hormone therapy can increase the risk of breast cancer, blood clots and heart disease. Women should talk with their health care provider about the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy with your doctor.
In men, hypogonadism results in loss of sex drive and may cause:
Men normally have lower testosterone as they age. However, the decline in hormone levels is not as dramatic as it is in women.
Talk to your health care provider if you notice:
Both men and women should call their provider if they have headaches or vision problems.
Maintain normal body weight and healthy eating habits may help in some cases. Other causes may not be preventable.
Ali O, Donohoue PA. Hypofunction of the testes. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW III, et al., eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 577.
Bhasin S, Cunningham GR, Hayes FJ, et al. Testosterone therapy in adult men with androgen deficiency syndromes: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2536-59. PMID: 20525905 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20525905
Kansra AR, Donohoue PA. Hypofunction of the ovaries. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW III, et al, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 580.
Swerdloff RS, Wang C. The testis and male sexual function. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 242.
Review Date: 10/25/2014 Reviewed By: Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
Originally posted here:
Hypogonadism - UT Medical Center
- Testosterone, Memory and Diabetes: What’s the Link? - June 26th, 2022
- Female Hypogonadism Symptoms | eHow - May 18th, 2021
- Low T - My life was falling apart because I had low testosterone - April 25th, 2021
- Hypogonadism - April 11th, 2021
- Testosterone cream and gel for supplementation treating hypogonadism - March 13th, 2021
- Testosterone Treatments May Alleviate Negative Effects of Type-Two Diabetes - December 8th, 2020
- More than 152 Million Men Suffer from Hypogonadism and Low Testosterone - November 26th, 2020
- Clomiphene Citrate for Low-T - October 28th, 2020
- NATESTO (testosterone) Nasal Spray - October 27th, 2020
- Risk Factors for and Causes of Male Hypogonadism - October 11th, 2020
- What Is Male Hypogonadism - August 14th, 2020
- Excessive Use of Tylenol / Acetaminophen May Negatively Affect Testosterone Levels in Unborn Boys - August 1st, 2020
- Ordering Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) – Buy it Online! - May 8th, 2020
- Hypogonadism: Treatment, Diagnosis, and Prognosis - April 16th, 2020
- Testosterone Replacement Beneficial for Modern Men? - February 11th, 2020
- HIV and Testosterone Deficiency - verywell.com - July 17th, 2016
- Hypogonadism - Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment - July 17th, 2016
- Lipocine - Hypogonadism - July 17th, 2016
- Hypogonadism - Risks, Symptoms and Leading Causes | Treato - July 17th, 2016
- Hypogonadism and Hypogonadism Resources - What is ... - July 17th, 2016
- Male Hypogonadism - Genitourinary Disorders - Merck ... - July 9th, 2016
- Male - Hypogonadism -- Low T Treatment Help!? - Drugs.com - May 6th, 2016
- Hypogonadism Causes Infertility. Learn how to detect and ... - May 6th, 2016
- BodyLogicMD - Hypogonadism (Low Testosterone in Men) - February 8th, 2016
- Hypogonadism | Disorders | Knowledge Base - August 26th, 2015
- hypogonadism | pathology | Britannica.com - July 22nd, 2015
- Male hypogonadism Tests and diagnosis - Mayo Clinic - May 23rd, 2015
- Hypogonadism (Medical Condition) - Video - April 21st, 2015
- Treatment Options for Hypogonadism - Healthline - April 4th, 2015
- Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism - Wikipedia, the free ... - March 23rd, 2015
- Testosterone treatment of male hypogonadism - UpToDate - March 23rd, 2015
- Statins may lower testosterone and libido - March 16th, 2015
- Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism - Pipeline Review, H1 2015 - March 13th, 2015
- Biomarker monitors testosterone therapy for osteoporosis - March 12th, 2015
- The effect of hypogonadism and testosterone-enhancing therapy - Video - March 5th, 2015
- Causes of secondary hypogonadism in males - March 2nd, 2015
- Male hypogonadism: symptoms, cause, treatment, risk ... - February 18th, 2015
- Male Hypogonadism 1/28/15 - Video - January 31st, 2015
- What is Hypogonadism - Symptoms and Treatment | Hormone ... - January 30th, 2015
- Auxilium Announces Results from Special Meeting of Stockholders - January 28th, 2015
- Male hypogonadism pathophysiology - Video - January 14th, 2015
- Endo to Acquire Rights to Testosterone Nasal Gel Natesto - Analyst Blog - November 26th, 2014
- Testosterone Deficiency (Hypogonadism) Overview ... - November 23rd, 2014
- Male Hypogonadism Therapeutic Pipeline Industry Review, H2 2014 - Video - November 7th, 2014
- Hypogonadism in men living with HIV - Video - November 7th, 2014
- Will Repros (RPRX) Miss Estimates This Earnings Season? - Analyst Blog - November 5th, 2014
- Urology Care Foundation - Urology A-Z - Low Testosterone - November 3rd, 2014
- Male Hypogonadism: Male Reproductive Endocrinology: Merck ... - October 28th, 2014
- Hypogonadism Wikipedia - October 28th, 2014
- Hypogonadism No Moustache! No Beard!! - October 28th, 2014
- Apricus expands development pipeline with the in-licensing of US rights for fispemifene, a phase 2b ready asset, from ... - October 21st, 2014
- Apricus expands development pipeline with in-licensing of US rights for fispemifene - October 21st, 2014
- The Wall Street Journal: Repros Therapeutics shares drop on drug application setback - October 18th, 2014
- Repros Therapeutics Analyst Brief Report; Androxal(R) Achieves Superiority in Top Line Analysis by Small Cap Street ... - September 30th, 2014
- Repros Reports Encouraging Late-Stage Data on Androxal - Analyst Blog - August 28th, 2014
- Repros Therapeutics Q2 Loss a Penny Wider than Expected - Analyst Blog - August 12th, 2014
- Prevalence, Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypogonadism in ... - April 30th, 2014
- Repros Completes Enrollment for Androxal Study - Analyst Blog - April 16th, 2014
- VLog #127 Frances Explains Hypogonadism. - Video - April 7th, 2014
- Hypogonadism: Types, Causes, & Symptoms - Medical ... - April 6th, 2014
- Male hypogonadism Symptoms - Diseases and Conditions ... - April 2nd, 2014
- Update on Endo's Product Portfolio - Analyst Blog - March 11th, 2014
- Unit Project 1 Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism - Video - March 8th, 2014
- Endo: FDA Oks AVEED Injection For Treatment Of Adult Men With Hypogonadism - March 6th, 2014
- Hypogonadism | Medscape - Latest Medical News, Clinical ... - February 23rd, 2014
- Hypogonadism : Types, Causes, & Symptoms - Healthline - February 17th, 2014
- Low Testosterone (Hypogonadism) in Men - Video - February 14th, 2014
- Hypogonadism: Types, Causes, & Symptoms Healthline - February 14th, 2014
- Testosterone Therapy Not Always Good for Older Men - February 11th, 2014
- Endocrine Society calls for large-scale studies to evaluate testosterone therapy risks - February 8th, 2014
- Study Finds Potential Heart Risks from Testosterone Therapy - February 3rd, 2014
- Hypogonadism - SharedJourney - January 23rd, 2014
- Hypogonadism | Medscape - Latest Medical News, Clinical Trials ... - December 30th, 2013
- Hypogonadism - HealthCentral - December 24th, 2013
- Hypogonadism - December 23rd, 2013
- Hypogonadism - Medscape Reference - December 21st, 2013
- Audio-Digest Foundation Announces the Release of Oncology Volume 04, Issue 16: Highlights from Future Directions ... - December 15th, 2013
- Male hypogonadism: Symptoms - MayoClinic.com - December 12th, 2013
- Exciting medical advances using HRT - December 12th, 2013
- Hypogonadism - About.com Men's Health - December 2nd, 2013
Word Count: 939