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Hypogonadism and Testosterone – Testosterone Replacement Therapy


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on June 14th, 2020

senior hormone doctor 300x200Video Download: Hypogonadism Testosterone Archives Testosterone Prescription Part 1 Video Stream: Hypogonadism Testosterone Archives Testosterone Prescription Part 1 Video Download: Hypogonadism Testosterone Archives Testosterone Prescription Part 2 Video Stream: Hypogonadism Testosterone Archives Testosterone Prescription Part 2 The Effects of Hypogonadism on Men Learn more about the causes and cures of this ever-increasing problem    Your physician enters the room with a somber demeanor and announces, "Your blood tests are back, and it's confirmed: you have hypogonadism."    The response of many men to this somewhat confusing pronouncement is often: "what's that?" The medical, professional, clinical definition of hypogonadism is the reduction or absence of hormone secretion or other physiological activity of the gonads (testes). The Endocrine Society practice guideline has a similar definition: Hypogonadism in men is a clinical syndrome that results from failure of the testis to produce physiological levels of testosterone (thus androgen deficiency) and an average number of spermatozoa due to disruption of one or more levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis.    In plain English, this means the decreased production of the critical male hormones that make men men…especially testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). This condition is sometimes given the moniker "low t."    Then more depressing news … Read more »

Low-T: Men With Low Testosterone Found More Likely to Die From COVID-19 AKA Coronavirus


Posted by Professor Anna Gray, Updated on June 14th, 2020

coronavirus and low testosterone 300x200As if getting the Coronavirus wasn't bad enough, especially if you're in the high-risk category already (high blood pressure, heart disease, smoker, respiratory issues or over 60 years old), now a German hospital has discovered that their male patients with low testosterone are succumbing to the virus's fatal attack more than their peers with normal testosterone levels. Since the beginning of the pandemic, the data collected on patients has revealed that men are twice as likely to die from COVID-19 as compared to women. The effect of low testosterone on men may be the reason behind this statistic. Testosterone and the Male Immune System Testosterone does not just play a role in a man's sexual health, as many people tend to think. This is a hormone that plays a role in many different processes and systems within the human body. One of these is the immune system, where testosterone plays an immunomodulatory role. The hormone has been observed modulating T-cell activation, and a 2016 study found that testosterone is associated with cytokine responses and mediates the body's response to various infections. Cytokines are tiny proteins that are secreted by certain cells of the immune system and are an essential part … Read more »

A Disturbing Trend: Testosterone Levels Falling Even Lower in Adolescent Males


Posted by Professor Anna Gray, Updated on June 10th, 2020

young men showing low testosterone levels 300x283Low testosterone levels seen in adolescent and young males when their levels should really be the highest in their lifetimes The update on testosterone levels of young men in the United States for 2020 is in and it is not good news. A series of scientific studies were presented on May 15th at the American Urological Association 2020 Virtual Experience press conference and they displayed some interesting, but disturbing, findings. One of these studies involved 4,045 men (adolescents and young men) who were between the ages of 15 and 39 years. They all participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and had their total testosterone levels measured over the time period between 1999 and 2016. Total testosterone is a measure of how much testosterone there is in the blood in both free and bound forms. Most of the testosterone is attached to two different proteins: albumin and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Other testosterone molecules travel around free in the bloodstream. Total Testosterone Levels Falling Over Time in Young Men The results of the data analysis showed that total testosterone was significantly lower in the young men who were part of the 2011-2016 group when compared to the … Read more »

Testosterone, Viagra not a winning combination for erectile dysfunction – Testosterone Prescription


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on April 30th, 2020

viagra 70398_640 300x225Using a testosterone gel in addition to Viagra doesn't make the little blue pill work any better, according to a new study. The report's lead researcher said testosterone is typically prescribed to men who have both low testosterone levels and symptoms such as little interest in sex or low bone and muscle mass. But, "there's a tremendous amount of clinical judgment" that goes into that, said Dr. Matthew Spitzer, from the Boston University School of Medicine. "People are certainly being prescribed and using these medications at increasing amounts." According to Spitzer, studies have suggested that about one-quarter to one-third of men with erectile dysfunction, or ED, also have low testosterone. There's a range in part because doctors and researchers don't all agree on where the cutoff should be for low levels of the male sex hormone. Spitzer and his colleagues found that a starting course of sildenafil citrate, marketed as Viagra, helped improve sexual functioning for men with both conditions. But adding testosterone on top of that didn't provide any added sexual benefits. The study included 140 men, aged 40 to 70. All were prescribed Viagra at 50 or 100 milligrams, which they took as needed before sex. After three … Read more »

Testosterone Reduces Group Think, Cooperation, and Less Sheep-Like Mentality


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Updated on April 26th, 2020

man strength through testosterone 300x190Testosterone makes us overvalue our own opinions at the expense of cooperation, research from the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging at UCL (University College London) has found. The findings may have implications for how group decisions are affected by dominant individuals. It also suggests that testosterone might make people more determined and set in their ways when they make decisions about the future. Could it also give such determined people the image in others as pigheaded, monomaniacal, knows-what-they-want or even as a born leader. Thus this spectrum of behaviors can be interpreted in different ways by different people. But one thing seems to be sure — men with higher testosterone appear to be, on average, more successful in life. Group versus Individual or Collective Versus Minority of One Problem-solving in groups can provide benefits over individual decisions as we can share our information and expertise. However, there is a tension between cooperation and self-orientated behavior: although groups might benefit from a collective intelligence, collaborating too tightly can lead to an uncritical group-think, ending in decisions that are bad for all. Evolution seems to favor a hierarchical structure; lone hunting animals are less likely to survive than pack animals with an … Read more »

Five Myths About Low Testosterone And Testosterone Therapy — Testosterone Prescription


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on April 8th, 2020

erection disfunction problems 300x211The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) has men of all ages seeking the most effective treatment. In recent years, low testosterone is the scapegoat for a growing number of male sexuality issues, including low sex drive and impotence. Testosterone therapy may be comfortable, but top penile implant surgeon, Dr. J. Francois Eid, cautions that the fallout is an abundance of men unnecessarily "addicted" to hormone replacement therapy. Video Download: Five Myths About Low Testosterone And Testosterone Therapy Testosterone Prescription Video Stream: Five Myths About Low Testosterone And Testosterone Therapy Testosterone Prescription "Testosterone replacement therapy arrests the body's natural production of testosterone. The treatment is now showing striking similarities to past problems with hormone replacement for women," explains Dr. Eid, an innovator of the No-Touch Technique for a penile implant and penile prosthesis surgery. "Surgery isn't the answer for everyone, but neither is testosterone. Accurate diagnosis of ED symptoms is critical," he says. "Very few men have abnormal (low) testosterone. We have to explore ED causes before assuming low testosterone to be the reason." Testosterone is responsible for many a manly attribute, but Dr. Eid answers the five most common myths about "Low T" treatment. Myth #1: My erection problems are … Read more »

A Great Way to Boost Your Testosterone? Get Married!


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Updated on April 2nd, 2020

wedding 322034_640 300x200Finally some positive news about marriage? According to Australian researchers at the University of Adelaide, men who are married have higher testosterone levels than men who aren't. Maybe it's time to re-think your bachelor status after all! Many people think that testosterone levels in men drop due to age alone – that it's inevitable. But a lot of it has to do with a man's lifestyle and behavior. Evidence of this was presented at the ENDO 2012: The Endocrine Society 94th Annual Meeting by Dr. Andre Araujo. According to the findings, evaluating a total of 891 men, those who underwent a year-long lifestyle modification program experienced an almost 50% increase in their testosterone levels. The study was funded by the National Health Medical Research Council of Australia. Video Download: Dr Manny Want To Boost Your Testosterone Try Getting Married Testosterone Prescription Video Stream: Dr Manny Want To Boost Your Testosterone Try Getting Married Testosterone Prescription The program involved calorie and fat reductions as well as 150 minutes of exercise a week. Their weight loss also contributed to preventing type 2 diabetes or delaying the onset. Both obesity and type 2 diabetes have been correlated with low testosterone levels in men. … Read more »

Co-Sleeping with Baby Drops Men’s Testosterone Levels


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on March 21st, 2020

baby 22194_640 300x200Video Download: Co Sleeping With Baby Drops Men S Testosterone Levels Video Stream: Co Sleeping With Baby Drops Men S Testosterone Levels A new study shows that it's not only women's bodies that adapt to parenthood: fathers who sleep next to their tot show dips in their levels of testosterone, which researchers say is good for the baby. In prior research, study author Gettler (currently of the University of Notre Dame in the US state of Indiana) and his colleagues found that when men become fathers, their testosterone levels drop and the more involved dads were in caring for their children, the more significant their drops in the hormone. A new study suggests that men's bodies make adjustments to better adapt to child rearing. AFP/Relaxnews After taking saliva samples before and after sleep, they found those who shared a bed with junior had dips in their testosterone levels in the evening. The researchers also took testosterone samples in 2005 and 2009, and they found that dads who dozed next to their child had a third less testosterone than before, compared to dads who slept separately. While high testosterone levels have been linked to aggression, extroversion, and risk-taking, lower testosterone levels … Read more »

Low Testosterone Levels Cause Health Woes — Testosterone Prescription


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on March 11th, 2020

borderline depression psycholgie personalities 220x300On screen, he plays a crime-busting officer, leading a crack team of elite men and women from the Immigration and Checkpoints Authority, in the TV series Point Of Entry. But in reality, actor Bernard Tan has suffered for nearly three years from fatigue and a lack of motivation to go about his daily activities -- including acting. Video Download: Low Testosterone Levels Cause Health Woes Testosterone Prescription Video Stream: Low Testosterone Levels Cause Health Woes Testosterone Prescription "Initially, I thought I was overworked and that I should sleep more. Even after getting enough rest, I still felt that way," the 49-year-old bachelor said yesterday. But a pamphlet he came across in a clinic recently made him realize that he could be suffering from hypogonadism -- or testosterone deficiency syndrome. "I actually took the pamphlet because I wanted to get the same hairstyle as the male model featured on it," he quipped during a media briefing at the Grand Copthorne Waterfront Hotel yesterday. In the end, he did not get the hairstyle as his hairstylist told him that his hair would have to be damaged to achieve the look. But he did find out what was wrong when he went through … Read more »

Question: What Makes Men Sexy to Women? Answer: Low Stress, High Testosterone, Strong Immunity – Testosterone Therapy


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on February 29th, 2020

chiseled jaw women turn on 300x200Washboard abs and a chiseled jaw are a draw, but a recent study suggests it may be a man's healthy immune system that turns women on. That makes sense since a robust immune system signifies a healthy guy -- one who's likely to survive long enough to pass his rugged genes to the next generation. Video Download: Question What Makes Men Sexy To Women Answer Low Stress High Testosterone Strong Immunity Video Stream: Question What Makes Men Sexy To Women Answer Low Stress High Testosterone Strong Immunity But the more surprising thing is that women can spot good immunity by looking at a guy's face. The critical factor may be testosterone, the male hormone that has been associated with a man's healthy, good looks. According to a study published in the journal Nature Communications, testosterone levels are not only linked with facial attractiveness but also with a robust immune system response. To figure out the complicated relationship between hormones and hotness, researchers from Abertay University in the U.K. studied 74 Latvian men in their early 20s. They gave the men a Hepatitis B vaccine, which triggers the immune system to produce antibodies to fight the virus, and took blood samples … Read more »

Testosterone Drives Ego, Reduces Cooperation — Testosterone Prescription


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Updated on January 16th, 2020

groupthink testosterone 300x300Testosterone drives egocentrism at the cost of cooperating with others, consequently affecting group decisions, a study reveals. Collective problem solving can provide benefits over individual decisions as we can share our information and experiences, stated a new study from Wellcome Trust's Centre for Neuroimaging at the University College London. Video Download: Testosterone Drives Ego Reduces Cooperation Video Stream: Testosterone Drives Ego Reduces Cooperation Now researchers have shown that testosterone has the opposite effect — it makes people act less cooperative and more egocentric, the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences reported. Researcher Nick Wright and colleagues at the Centre for Neuroimaging carried out a series of tests using 17 pairs of female volunteers who had previously never met. The trial took place over two days, spaced a week apart. "When we are making decisions in groups, we tread a fine line between cooperation and self-interest: too much cooperation and we may never get our way, but if we are too self-orientated, we are likely to ignore people who have real insight," explained Wright. On one of the days, both volunteers in each pair were given a testosterone supplement; on the other day, they were given a placebo. … Read more »

Your Life on Testosterone: Overly Sure, Unwilling to Listen to Anyone


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Updated on July 12th, 2020

hear nothing 1812799_640 300x300A study testing the effect of testosterone has found that it dramatically lowers cooperation between individuals, making people more egocentric. In this study, people performed their task more poorly under the influence of testosterone. It didn't affect their performance, but the lack of cooperation it caused resulted in partners making the wrong choice more frequently than they did when not under the influence of testosterone. Oh, and by the way, all the subjects were women. Video Download: Your Life On Testosterone Overly Sure Unwilling To Listen To Anyone Video Stream: Your Life On Testosterone Overly Sure Unwilling To Listen To Anyone Self-centered, unwilling to listen, and overly sure of yourself. This is your life on testosterone, even if you are female. The study was of 17 pairs of women who had never met before. Each pair participated in two sessions held three to seven days apart. In one session, both women were given an oral testosterone supplement (80 mg of testosterone undecanoate) six to seven hours before the session. For the other session, neither woman received testosterone. Each session consisted of 192 trials. In each test, the women sat at separate computer screens and were shown the same two sets … Read more »

Testosterone Linked to Heart Disease — Testosterone Prescription


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Updated on January 26th, 2020

Acidosis: The Hidden Health Destroyer


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Updated on September 9th, 2019

Symptoms_of_acidosis 300x275Video Download: Acidosis The Hidden Health Destroyer Part 1 Video Stream: Acidosis The Hidden Health Destroyer Part 1 Video Download: Acidosis The Hidden Health Destroyer Part 2 Video Stream: Acidosis The Hidden Health Destroyer Part 2 The Hidden Health Dangers of Acidosis An Incredibly Important Yet Little Considered Aspect of Optimal Health As you already know, there is a variety of moving parts that you have to keep track of to stay healthy—Your weight, your cholesterol levels, and your blood pressure to name a few. There's one incredibly important aspect of human health that is often left out in the cold, in spite of its incredible importance. It's central to helping your body control pain and to assist your liver to filtrate and function at its peak—Blood pH Level. Understanding pH Level, Acidity, and Alkalinity pH stands for Potential Hydrogen and represents a measure of alkalinity and acidity. The system uses water as a baseline. The scale extends from 0 to 14, with 0 being the most acidic and 14 being the most alkaline. 7 is the pH of pure water. As you can imagine, since the human body is composed primarily of water, it maintains a pH of close … Read more »

Men with higher testosterone tend to lie less, study suggests


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on April 1st, 2019

lying less with testosterone 300x200A new study suggests that men with more testosterone tend to lie less than those with low testosterone. Researchers in Germany found that those who were given testosterone before the study told fewer lies than those who did not receive the shot. An earlier study has already linked testosterone with risky financial behavior. "Testosterone has always been said to promote aggressive and risky behavior and posturing," said Bernard Weber, a neuroscientist from the Center for Economics and Neuroscience in Bonn, according to the Irish Independent. The study gave 46 participants extra testosterone while 45 others were given a placebo. They were then given a game to play which allowed for the inherent possibility of lying to earn money. Those with higher testosterone, it was shown, lied less frequently. "Test subjects with the higher testosterone levels had clearly lied less frequently than untreated test subjects," said co-author Armin Falk, according to Cordis. "This result clearly contradicts the one-dimensional approach that testosterone results in anti-social behavior." Reference Testosterone increases honesty, study suggests … Read more »

Increase in testosterone drug use – Testosterone Prescription


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on April 1st, 2019

doping 271622_640 300x180A sharp uptake of testosterone products by Australian men has been blamed on ‘disease mongering' by pharmaceutical companies. Testosterone product use jumped 115 percent from about 29,000 products dispensed in 2005 to 62,000 in 2010 following the marketing of a new gel, according to Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme statistics. Pharmaceutical companies marketing testosterone products in both Australia and Canada found ways to skirt advertising laws by warning that symptoms including low energy, low sex drive and even falling asleep after dinner could be due to low testosterone levels, researchers said. Advertisements by two companies which ran in Australia and Canada in the past four years encouraged men with the symptoms to see their doctor for a testosterone test and ask about new treatments. Australian and Canadian researchers said low testosterone was an unlikely cause of these symptoms. Testosterone treatment has not been shown to improve libido, and sexual function, depression and cognitive function, or quality of life in men with age-related testosterone loss,' Agnes Vitry from the University of South Australia and Barbara Mintzes from the University of British Columbia in Canada said. The researchers said testosterone therapy could expose men to many unwanted adverse effects, including progression to subclinical prostate … Read more »

Environment trumps genes in testosterone levels, study finds – Testosterone Prescription


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on April 1st, 2019

city skyline montreal canada 300x201MONTREAL Boys will be boys, as the adage goes, with their boisterous rough-and-tumble play so stereotypically male. Is it the doings of a primary sex hormone called testosterone, long associated with social dominance, masculinity, and strength? Many scientists have explored the role of hormones and conduct, whether in school playgrounds, sports, war or bedrooms. Now a Universite de Montreal study of five-month-old twins is among the first to tease out the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to circulating levels of this chemical. The research with infant twins suggests that the environment plays a more significant role than genes when it comes to testosterone levels. Studies in human and animal models over the past 50 years have confirmed an association between aggression, dominance, and testosterone in adolescence said lead author Richard Tremblay of UdeM's research unit on children's psychosocial maladjustment. "The question is, when does that association start" asked Tremblay, whose team looked at newborn babies of both sexes. Published in the online edition of Psychoneuroendocrinology, the study compared testosterone in saliva samples from a total of 314 infants identical twins with non-identical twins. Identical pairs share the same genes, while fraternal twins are like any siblings and share 50 … Read more »

The top ten testosterone booster supplements: A review


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on March 28th, 2019

strong man doing pushups 300x200     Testosterone. For males, this is the magic hormone. As a young boy enters puberty, testosterone begins to flood his system. By his mid-teens, it is becoming a floodgate and keeps flowing throughout his twenties. Why is testosterone so important? Because it makes men MEN. From burning fat to building muscle, from having youthful energy to boosting your brainpower, from having the unbreakable willpower to exuding confidence, testosterone is the key. Most men don't pay too much attention to testosterone when they are young. After all, why should they? It is so easy to take it for granted since the supply is seemingly endless. Unfortunately, Mother Nature has other plans That's correct. Beginning at approximately age thirty, men start to lose testosterone. By most estimates, the decline of free testosterone in the blood levels drops off by around 10% per year. Do the math. By the time a man has reached eighty, he is lucky to have one-half of the testosterone levels that he did fifty years ago. And the consequences aren't pretty Weakened muscles…a steep drop in stamina and endurance…increasing aches and pains…brain fog…brittle bones…worn-out Glands…thinning, wrinkled skin…diminished sex life…it sounds like a parade from the depths of … Read more »

Testosterone replacement therapy improves symptoms of metabolic syndrome – Testosterone Prescription


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on March 26th, 2019

boost your metabolic rate 300x178Hormone-replacement therapy significantly improved symptoms of metabolic syndrome associated with testosterone deficiency in men, a new study from Germany finds. The results will be presented Monday at The Endocrine Society's 94th Annual Meeting in Houston. Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of complications that can increase the risk of heart and blood-vessel disease as well as type 2 diabetes. These complications include excess body weight, especially around the waist and torso, and abnormal concentrations of fat in the blood, known as lipids. In particular, patients with metabolic syndrome have high blood levels of the so-called bad fats, or triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins, and insufficient amounts of the healthy fats known as high-density lipoproteins. Also, they often have high blood pressure and sugar, or glucose, levels. Previous research has linked metabolic syndrome to testosterone deficiency, which can cause decreased muscle and bone mass, depression, low energy, and reduced sex drive and ability. Also, testosterone deficiency is also associated with the individual symptoms of metabolic syndrome, even when they are present without the other complications. "When indicated, testosterone treatment is both essential and safe in elderly patients with symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism or testosterone deficiency," said study lead author Aksam A. Yassin, M.D., Ph.D., … Read more »

Testosterone shown to help sexually frustrated women- Testosterone Prescription


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on March 25th, 2019

40016 shutterstock 101894815Several weeks ago my column, Do you want better sex? struck a resounding note not only with female readers but also with many husbands who want their wives to have fewer headaches. The general response was, Please write more about testosterone and how it can increase female libido. Testosterone, the male hormone, has been called the hormone of desire. In males, the Big T builds muscle for boys and ultimately turns boys into sexually well-functioning men. Women also produce testosterone during puberty, but only about one-tenth as much as males. Later in life, they produce less, and this is why some authorities believe women lose interest in sex. How do women know if they have less testosterone and therefore less tiger in the tank? There's good chance testosterone is lacking if they complain of little sexual desire, lack of energy, loss of height, decreased enjoyment in life, are sad or grumpy, fall asleep after meals and produce inadequate work performance. If the answer is yes to four of these conditions, there may not be enough big T. Women may lack this hormone for several reasons. In North America, 700,000 hysterectomies are done every year. The ovaries that produce estrogen and … Read more »

Testosterone therapy — good idea or not? – Testosterone Prescription


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on March 25th, 2019

testosterone blood test 300x199Unless you've been living in a cave, or under a rock, you've undoubtedly heard the term "Low-T" or seen an advertisement talking about how testosterone declines as men age and how the solution is undergoing testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). It promises an incredible allure: increased libido more muscle mass and strength, exploding energy levels to what they were in your youth, and a host of others. But is that the entire story? Does it come with health risks? Each birthday after 30 means a drop in testosterone levels by approximately 1%, and therefore 10% each decade. Do the math. By age 60 your testosterone levels will be about 30 percent lower than what they were when you were a young man. And, if you can live until age 80, you now have 50% of your youthful levels of the powerful masculine hormone. Congratulations! You're now, in many ways, ½ a man. You've heard of menopause for women Andropause is what men experience…a natural, slow decline in testosterone levels. Sometimes, the decrease is fast, causing legitimate concerns. Symptoms of Low-T include hair loss, fatigue, low semen production, lowered sex drive, erectile dysfunction, hot flashes, infertility, loss of muscle and bone mass, … Read more »

Too much testosterone makes for bad decisions, tests show – Testosterone Prescription


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on February 27th, 2019

personal decision tree 300x214It can happen in jury deliberations and local groups, in Dáil committees and company boardrooms. Too much testosterone can thwart good decision-making. People have long blamed the male hormone for the damaging group dynamic, and now University College London researchers have proven this to be true. Toss in some excess testosterone and co-operation tends to go out the window. Dr. Mark Wright and colleagues at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging at UCL tested the impact of testosterone on the levels of co-operative decision-making accomplished by groups. They publish their findings this morning in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Other experiments had already shown that subjects given the female hormone oxytocin tended to be more co-operative. The university team wanted to see whether testosterone could produce the opposite effect, Dr. Wright said. Men already have high levels of the hormone and if extra is given it will quickly be broken down. For this reason, only women were used as subjects, Dr. Wright said. Supplements were given to elevate their testosterone levels temporarily, and the women conducted a series of tests to measure levels of co-operation. Dr. Wright used 17 pairs of female volunteers who were asked to … Read more »

With testosterone, it’s ‘my way or the highway’: UK study – Testosterone Prescription


Posted by Dr. Michael White, Published on February 27th, 2019

my way or the highway testosterone 300x200Testosterone can skew one's judgment, creating the impression that decisions are best taken alone even in situations that call for collaboration, according to a study released Wednesday. In a smart set of experiments, scientists led by Nicholas Wright at the University of London showed that women given a dose of testosterone become less inclined to act in concert even when it was apparently in their interest to do so. Finding the right balance between working together and going solo, and knowing when to do one or the other, is an essential life skill. In some circumstances, joining forces with others is the best way to achieve the desired result: that's why lions and hyenas hunt in packs, and why humans cooperate on the playing field, in the laboratory, or in battle. Sometimes, however, decisive individual action is needed to break free of group-think or to come out ahead of the game. To a significant extent, our ability to navigate between these two extremes is acquired through learning and experience, but some of these impulses are hardwired too. Earlier research, for example, on the biological underpinnings of group decision making revealed that a naturally-occurring hormone, oxytocin, promotes the urge to work … Read more »