Testosterone is a hormone which is responsible for many of the physical characteristics specific to adult males.It plays a key role in reproduction and the maintenance of bone and muscle strength.
Testo (brand name for testosterone formulations); 4-androsten-17-ol-3-one.
Testosterone is produced by the gonads (by the Leydig cells in testes in men and by the ovaries in women), although small quantities are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes.It is an androgen, meaning that it stimulates the development of male characteristics.
Present in much greater levels in men than women, testosterone initiates the development of the male internal and external reproductive organs during foetal development and is essential for the production of sperm in adult life.This hormone also signals the body to make new blood cells, ensures that muscles and bones stay strong during and after puberty and enhances libido both in men and women.Testosterone is linked to many of the changes seen in boys during puberty (including an increase in height, body and pubic hair growth, enlargement of the penis, testes and prostate gland and changes in sexual and aggressive behaviour).It also regulates the secretion of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone.To effect these changes, testosterone is often converted into another androgen called dihydrotestosterone.
In women, testosterone is produced by the ovaries and adrenal glands.The majority of testosterone produced in the ovary is converted to the principle female sex hormone, oestradiol.
The regulation of testosterone production is tightly controlled to maintain normal levels in blood, although levels are usually highest in the morning and fall after that.The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland are important in controlling the amount of testosterone produced by the testes.In response to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland produces luteinising hormone which travels in the bloodstream to the gonads and stimulates the production and release of testosterone.
As blood levels of testosterone increase, this feeds back to suppress the production of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus which, in turn, suppresses production of luteinising hormone by the pituitary gland. Levels of testosterone begin to fall as a result, so negative feedback decreases and the hypothalamus resumes secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone.
The effect excess testosterone has on the body depends on both age and sex. It is unlikely that adult men will develop a disorder in which they produce too much testosterone and it is often difficult to spot that an adult male has too much testosterone.More obviously, young children with too much testosterone may enter a false growth spurt and show signs of early puberty and young girls may experience abnormal changes to their genitalia. In both males and females, too much testosterone can lead to precocious puberty and result in infertility.
In women, high blood levels of testosterone may also be an indicator of polycystic ovary syndrome.Women with this condition may notice increased acne, body and facial hair (called hirsutism), balding at the front of the hairline, increased muscle bulk and a deepening voice.
There are also several conditions that cause the body to produce too much testosterone.These include androgen resistance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and ovarian cancer.
The use of anabolic steroids (manufactured androgenic hormones) can lead to a perceived high level of testosterone by the hypothalamus, resulting in reduced luteinising hormone secretion from the pituitary gland and, in turn, a decrease in the amount of testosterone produced within the testes, while artificial testosterone levels remain high. In men, prolonged exposure to anabolic steroids results in infertility, a decreased sex drive, shrinking of the testes and breast development. Liver damage may result from its prolonged attempts to detoxify the anabolic steroids.Behavioural changes (such as increased irritability) may also be observed.Undesirable reactions also occur in women who take anabolic steroids regularly, as a high concentration of testosterone, either natural or manufactured, can cause masculinisation (virilisation) of women.
If testosterone deficiency occurs during foetal development, then masculinisation of the foetus will fail to occur normally and this may give rise to disorders of sex development. If testosterone deficiency occurs during puberty, a boys growth may slow and no growth spurt will be seen.The child may also fail to develop full sexual characteristics (hypogonadism) associated with men undergoing puberty, including development of pubic hair, growth of the penis and testes and deepening of the voice. Around the time of puberty, boys with too little testosterone may also have less than normal strength and endurance, and their arms and legs may continue to grow out of proportion with the rest of their body.
In adult men, low testosterone may lead to a reduction in muscle bulk, loss of body hair and a wrinkled parchment-like appearance of the skin. Testosterone levels in men decline naturally as they age. In the media, this is sometimes referred to as the male menopause (andropause).
Low testosterone levels can cause mood disturbances, increased body fat, loss of muscle tone, inadequate erections and poor sexual performance, osteoporosis, difficulty with concentration, memory loss and sleep difficulties. Current research suggests that this effect occurs in only a small group of ageing men.However, there is a lot of research currently in progress to find out more about the effects of testosterone in older men and also whether the use of testosterone replacement therapy would have any benefits.
Reviewed: January 2015
Read more here:
Contact Us Today For A Free Consultation
- MOTS-c Therapy To Improve Body Composition - December 11th, 2022
- Punicalagin: A powerful Testosterone Booster - November 24th, 2022
- Blocking Testosterone to Defeat Melanoma - August 11th, 2022
- Stomach Inflammation: Another Ailment That Testosterone Can Stop in its Tracks - August 3rd, 2022
- Study Finds that Testosterone Boosts Memory for Uncontrolled Diabetics - June 24th, 2022
- Causes of Low Libido - Could It Be Low-T? - May 30th, 2022
- The Evolutionary Effects of Testosterone on Human Society - September 20th, 2021
- More Sex: A Better Way to Boost Your Testosterone Levels - September 7th, 2021
- Men Want to Know – Free Testosterone versus Total Testosterone - August 24th, 2021
- What is testosterone? - May 23rd, 2021
- Tribulus Terrestris Review Does It Raise Testosterone or ... - May 22nd, 2021
- Boosting testosterone levels (First of two parts) - May 8th, 2021
- How long does it take for Testosterone replacement treatments and therapy to work? - May 1st, 2021
- What Is Testosterone AndroGel - April 28th, 2021
- Low T - My life was falling apart because I had low testosterone - April 25th, 2021
- Deer Antler, HGH and Testosterone: Tim on Scott and BR Radio Show - Video - April 17th, 2021
- What is Testosterone? What does Testosterone do? Find on - April 14th, 2021
- How Testosterone Affects the Skin of Men - April 11th, 2021
- Testosterone, the Power Hormone - April 8th, 2021
- Testosterone Levels and Wall Street - March 27th, 2021
- Women can resist testosterone-fuelled political debate - March 12th, 2021
- BUSTED: Myths About Testosterone And Its Link To Sexual Desire In Men And Women - March 11th, 2021
- Attention Baby Boomers -- Could Testosterone be the Modern Day "Fountain of Youth?" - March 4th, 2021
- Declining Testosterone Levels in Men Not Part of Normal Aging - February 28th, 2021
- Quick Weight Loss Tips and Diet Recommendations for HRT - February 28th, 2021
- Testosterone and Alcohol: Your Health and the Holiday Season - February 27th, 2021
- Testosterone builds muscle but has risks - February 25th, 2021
- New Study Finds That Testosterone Does Not Increase Cardiovascular Risk - February 22nd, 2021
- Evidence Suggests Testosterone Plays Powerful Role in Motivating Revolutionary Change - February 15th, 2021
- The Effects of Parenthood Upon Testosterone Levels - January 9th, 2021
- Testicular Cancer Survivors are at Risk for Low Testosterone - January 6th, 2021
- Amygdala and it's Relationship to Testosterone and Fear - December 25th, 2020
- Testosterone Does Not Cause Atherosclerosis (Hardening of the Arteries) in Older Men - December 24th, 2020
- Increased Testosterone DOES NOT Cause Prostate Cancer to Spread - December 23rd, 2020
- Testosterone Cypionate and Testosterone Enanthate: The Real Facts - December 20th, 2020
- A Surprising Side Effect of Methadone Treatment: Suppressed Testosterone - December 18th, 2020
- The Testosterone Industry Globally is Booming - December 12th, 2020
- Five Benefits of Testosterone That You Need to Know - December 11th, 2020
- Testosterone Nasal Gel: A New Form of Testosterone Replacement Therapy - December 5th, 2020
- New Research Proves Testosterone Replacement Therapy is Safe for the Heart - December 3rd, 2020
- Skinny Bartender with Low Testosterone Becomes a Ripped Bodybuilder - December 3rd, 2020
- Low-T and Your Health - November 30th, 2020
- Low Testosterone Levels may Affect Man's Sex Drive and Affect his Intimate Relationships - November 19th, 2020
- Is Testosterone the New Drug of Choice on Wall Street? How Traders are Using Male Hormone Booster Shots to Maintain a ... - November 12th, 2020
- Shorter course of ADT for high-risk prostate cancer patients yields improved quality of life - November 11th, 2020
- Testosterone Litigation: What You Need To Know - MTMP - Video - November 9th, 2020
- Methadone Lowers Testosterone in Men Only - November 8th, 2020
- Should middle-aged men consider 'low T' treatment? - November 5th, 2020
- Testosterone and Crime: What Can Genes Tell Us About Behavior? - Video - October 25th, 2020
- Testosterone shown to help sexually frustrated women - October 22nd, 2020
- Testosterone levels seen prior to birth in fetus' fingers, jawline - October 20th, 2020
- Tri-Blend Testosterone. Understanding the Benefits of Testosterone Oils - October 19th, 2020
- Testosterone levels in older men - October 17th, 2020
- Tlando Testosterone Clinical Trial for Low-T and Fatty Liver Disease - October 4th, 2020
- Testosterone Focus in Diabetes Study – Video - September 30th, 2020
- Testshock Review All Natural Testosterone Enhancement – Video - September 30th, 2020
- Testosterone, Anxiety, and Depression - September 30th, 2020
- Average Testosterone Levels Decreasing Over Time Among Younger American Men - August 21st, 2020
- Testosterone Creams for Low Testosterone Treatment and Andropause - August 10th, 2020
- Testosterone Therapy and Androgen Deficiency Guide - August 6th, 2020
- Testosterone's Surprising Link to Men's 'Love Hormone' Oxytocin - August 5th, 2020
- Fortesta Brand Testosterone Therapy - August 3rd, 2020
- Andropause: Age-Associated Testosterone Decline - August 1st, 2020
- How to Build Muscle Quickly by Boosting Testosterone Levels - July 29th, 2020
- Testosterone Deficiency Strongly Linked to Heart Attack Risk in New Study - July 26th, 2020
- Seven Types of Drugs That Can Inhibit Sex Drive and Libido - July 22nd, 2020
- Testosterone and Geriatric Frailty - July 21st, 2020
- Testosterone and Aggression: How T-Levels Impact Human Response to External, Social Threats - July 12th, 2020
- High-Dose Testosterone Injections May Be a Viable Palliative Late-Stage Prostate Cancer Treatment - July 12th, 2020
- Could Civilization Have Been Formed as a Result of Declining Testosterone Levels in Males? - July 6th, 2020
- Testosterone Therapy Allows Man to Have the Body That He Was Meant to Have - July 5th, 2020
- Testosterone Injections for Low-T and Andropause - July 4th, 2020
- Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) Reduces the Risk of Serious Adverse Health Consequences! - June 30th, 2020
- Testosterone not always to blame - Sat, 04 Aug 2012 PST - June 28th, 2020
- Five Facts About Testosterone (That Maybe You Didn't Know) - June 27th, 2020
- Manhood Washed Away: You Could Unknowingly be Annihilating Your Testosterone - June 23rd, 2020
- Testosterone: Should You Take it to Regain Your Libido and Youthful Energy? - June 22nd, 2020
- Testosterone Replacement Therapy Boosts Aerobic Capacity - June 15th, 2020
- Physiology of Testosterone - June 9th, 2020
- The Truth Behind Common Male Sex Myths - May 26th, 2020
Word Count: 902